Local History Notebook

Byrkeknott

The English Historical Review Volume 14 1899 pages 509-29 contains the following transcription of the original record by G.T. Lapsley:-

(An English translation of the first eight latin sections can be found here

THE ACCOUNT ROLL OF A FIFTEENTH- CENTURY IRON MASTER.

So little information is at hand with regard to the methods of smelting and working iron before Dudley's memorable discovery that no excuse is necessary for reproducing in extenso the weekly account of a forge-master in the early fifteenth century. This document, besides the minute account of the expenses of production, week by week, for an entire year, supplies also a detailed picture of the building and furnishing of the forge itself. A few words about the origin of the document and its history will help us to a better understanding of it.

The bishops of Durham in their capacity of earls Palatine, during the middle ages, and, indeed, down to the present century, enjoyed, among other advantages of their office, the proprietorship of all mines, whether of coal, iron, or other minerals, within the bounds of their county palatine of Durham.  Such mines were, as a general rule, put at farm, but bishop Langley, in 1408, tried the experiment of smelting and working his own iron. 1  It is probable that this account roll is the record of an unsuccessful experiment rather than the only survivor of a group or series of similar documents.  The Durham records, it is true, are in a sadly fragmentary condition, and large numbers of the earlier ones have been destroyed owing to the neglect and even abuse to which they were subjected before their transfer to the Public Record Office in 1868-70. 2  On the other hand a tolerably careful examination of these records has failed to bring to light any document similar to the one in question, while a fair number of lead miners' accounts for this period have survived. 3 Finally we know that in 1433 the

1 Receipt Roll, Durham, in Boldon Book (Surtees Soc.), app. 26, 28, an. 1307 Ibid. Hatfteld's Survey (Surtees Soc.), 266, an. 1387. Durham Chancery Roll, Langley, Ann. 27, m. 7 (R.O. Durham Cursitor, 37).
2 Deputy -keeper's sixteenth Report, app. 4, p. 54, cf. xxix. ibid. app. 8, pp. 104-12.
3 Ecclesiastical Commissioners, Ministers' Accounts, 190.012-16. These are deposited in the Record Office.

page 510

bishop's iron mines in Weardale were again at farm. 4   We must assume, then, that the present document is unique. The account roll forms one of a bundle of miscellaneous Auditor's Records, of very various dates and contents, deposited in the Public Record Office. 5   The account is written on four membranes of parchment sewn together in the Chancery fashion, and rather folded than rolled. The top of the first membrane is much soiled and somewhat ragged, so that it has been impossible to decipher several words, but, with this exception, the parchment is fair and the handwriting neat and clear.

The Situation and Construction of the Forge. Byrkeknott itself seems to have disappeared, 6 but it may perhaps be recognised in Bedburn Forge, a village which still existed in the present century. 7   Bedburn lies in Weardale, which was a well-known source of iron during the middle ages ; 8 the ore occurs here in connexion with coal, 9 and this seems to have been the only kind of ore much used in the fifteenth century. 10   The Bedburn river   stream, perhaps, would be more exact  flows into the Wear near Witton Castle with force sufficient to turn a mill-wheel. The banks were marshy, and accordingly a site was chosen at a little distance from the stream ; here the ground was cleared and several wooden houses    probably mere cottages or huts  beside the forge itself were built. The forge was made of timber and roofed over with turf; it was provided with two furnaces, the blomeharth and the stryngharth, used respectively for the smelting and subsequent working of the iron.   There was also an extensive battery of iron tools, beside bellows, buckets, and such like things.    The stream was dammed and the water led up to a water-wheel by means of a stone trough or channel and wooden pipes.  The whole work of construction went on under the personal supervision of John Dalton, the iron-master, who made an expedition to a neighbouring forge to observe the methods there used in order better to instruct his own workmen.

The Labourers and their Wages  The initial work of clearing, building, furnishing, and the like, was done by contract made separately for each piece of work. The tools and other stock were either of home manufacture or else bought individually. When the industry was once under way, a staff of workmen, paid by the

4 Rot. D.D. Langley, m. 3d. 7, E.G. Durham Cursitor, 37.
5 R.O. Durham Auditor's Records, 5, 149.
6 See the ordnance survey map.
7 Mackenzie and Ross, Durham, ii. 275.
8 Rogers, Prices, iv. 398-9.
9 ' Minera nostra carbonum et ferri subtus eosdern carbones,' Rot. D.D. Langley, Ann. 27, m. 7, R.O. Durham Cursitor, 37. The reference is to Bayley, near Bedburn. Cf. R. Meade, Coal and Iron Industry, 330 ff.
10 J. L. Bell, Report on the Manufacture of Iron, British Association Rep. xxxiii. (1863), 730-64.

page 511

piece, was regularly retained. There was a ' colier ' or charcoal burner who converted the underbrush of the bishop's park at Bedburn into charcoal ; a ' blomesmyth ' who had charge of the ' blomyng ' or smelting of the ore, and who is called ' smythman ' in distinction to the faber who worked over the iron and cut it up into pieces of convenient size. These men with clearly defined duties were helped by a ' forman,' who may have been in command of a small body of ordinary labourers. Two women, the wives of the smith and foreman respectively, performed miscellaneous tasks which varied from breaking up the iron-stone to blowing the bellows.

Colier, blomesmith and faber were paid by the piece at the following rates : a dozen horseloads (duodenae) of charcoal burnt in the bishop's park two shillings, a blome (15 stone) of iron smelted from the ore sixpence, working over a blome at the forge sixpence, and cutting it into pieces one penny.   The foreman, when he helped in these processes, was also paid at a fixed rate, i.e. twopence per blome for smelting (prima factura) , and threepence for working the iron over (fabricatio et purificatio) .   We have, it is true, no direct mention of labourers under the foreman, but there is a note of the expenses of William Aycle who had ridden to Wakefield and Rotherham ' pro operariis, videlicet blomers et coliers, pro dicto forgeo perquirendo.'   The wages paid to the two women, even when due allowance has been made for the heterogeneous nature of their services, the fluctuating demand for them, and the number of festivals and consequently idle days in any given week, appear to have been determined by nothing short of caprice.   Take, for example, the month of December : in the first week three blomes of iron were produced, there were two festivals, and John Gylle's wife, who had been helping to break up iron-stone, received sevenpence.   The next week she was not employed.   The third week, however, she was busy at the bellows for five days (there was one festival), six blomes were produced, and again she received sevenpence.   There is no account for Christmas week and probably no work was done ; but between December 30 and January 5  five working days  she was again employed at the bellows, no iron was produced, but she took a wage of twelve pence. 11   It will be noticed, however, that from June 15

11 The following table shows the wages and occupation of John Gylle's wife for every week that she is mentioned in the account, with a note of the number of festivals falling in that week and the amount of iron made :

Week ending  Fest.  Occupation Wages Iron
(in blomes)
    8 Dec  1408 2 Auxilians petras frangere 7d. 3
22   "    "  1 Le belowes sufflans et petras minerae frangens 7 " 6
5 Jan    "  1 Laborans ad le belowes 12 0
12  "       "  0 Ad le folles laborans 12 6
26  "      "  1 Operariis adjuvans 10 6
    9 Feb    "  0 Folles sufflans 20 6
23 Feb    "  1 Operariis auxilians ad le belowes 14d. 5
16 Mar    "  0  Petras minerae ferri adimans 10 8
23  "    "  0 Pro diversis laboribus suis 14 5
30  " 1409 1 Ibidem laborans 9 6
13 Apr    "  1 Folles sofflans 12 3
27   "    "  0 Laborans per istam septimanam septimanam praecedentem 6 6
   4 May    "  2 Ibidem laborans 8 6
11   "    "  0      "                    "  8 5
18   "    "  1      "                    " 9 7
25   "    "  1      "                    "  9 6
   8 June    "  0  Pro stipendio suo 15 8
15   "    "  1  Ibidem laborans 5 10
29   "    "  2  Laborans ad le blomeharth 2 4
   6 July     "  0      "                   "  2 5
13   "    "  1  Operans ad le blomeharth 2 4
20   "    "  1  Ibidem laborans 2 4
10 Aug.    "  1  [Viro suo] adjuvans 2 6
17   "    "  1  Ibidem operans 3 5
24   "    "  1  [Viro suo] adjuvans 2 6
31   "    "  0      "                  "                  "  3 6
    7 Sept.    "  1      "                  "                  " 3 6
14   "    "  1      "                  "                  " 3 6
21   "    "  1      "                  "    auxilians 2 4
28   "    "  0      "                  "    adjuvans 4 8
    5 Oct.    "  1  Laborans in factura . . . vi blomes 3 6
12   "    "  0  [Viro suo] adjuvans 3 6
19   "    "  1      "                   "   auxilians  3 7
26   "    "  0 Pro                   vi blomes 3 6
   2 Nov.     "  1 [Viro suo] adjuvans 2 5
   9    "    0  Stipendio   .  .  .  folles sufflans 3 6
3

512 THE ACCOUNT ROLL OF A      July

she is paid regularly at the rate of d. per blome, but most of this time she was engaged in helping her husband, who had, as we have seen, definite employment at an ascertained rate.  A few more figures may be added to this list of wages : a carpenter or builder received fivepence per day and his assistant fourpence per day, a waggoner plying between Bedburn park and the forge a distance, probably, of less than two miles took eightpence per load for timber, and sixpence for charcoal ; a pennyworth of beer was distributed to the labourers almost every week ; curiously enough for two successive weeks in April this amount was first doubled and then quadrupled without apparent cause. At the end of the year 6s. 8d. was given to one of the charcoal burners as a reward for good and faithful service.

The Process of Manufacture.  The methods of smelting and working iron, before Dudley hit on the possibility of using pit-coal for this purpose, remain to us somewhat obscure. Under the most primitive conditions, the ore packed between layers of charcoal was smelted in tall cylindrical furnaces placed in a position so exposed that the wind supplied the lack of artificial draught or blast. Traces of such furnaces have been found on hill tops and in narrow valleys through which the wind draws with some violence.

1899    FIFTEENTH-CENTURY IRON MASTER         513

This method, or some variation of it involving a very primitive form of bellows, seems to have been common to all races who used iron at all ; it has been found in Africa on the shores of the Mediterranean, and in various parts of the British Isles. 12   The necessity, however, of producing a more regular and effective blast was very early recognised. The change is marked by the removal of the site of the forge from hilly places or dry valleys to the borders of streams, and by the different quality of the slag that has survived. 13   It is with this second stage that we have to deal, for our forge, as we know, was situated on a river, the force of which was used to turn a water-wheel. But how was the power thus obtained applied to producing a draught ? At first sight one would say that the water-wheel, by means of an attachment well known in the Forest of Dean at a later period, 14 served to urge the bellows. But in that case why should a woman have been employed for the same purpose ? As a substitute, perhaps, when the stream was frozen or ran dry ? But this hypothesis will not fit with the dates in the table above ; it is not possible to suppose that a stream would be either dry or frozen for an entire week in the middle of April. The idea of any mechanical contrivance such as a forge hammer can scarcely be admitted for so early a date as 1409, and the same exclusion must apply, probably, to the device known as the Catalan forge, a contrivance for producing a blast by passing a stream of water through a pipe perforated at the top, the water drawing the air along with it, and the two passing out by different apertures. 15    The solution of the difficulty may possibly be found in the awkward devices used for applying force. In the Forest of Dean in the seventeenth century the method is thus described :

     Behind the furnace are placed two high pair of bellows, whose noses meet at a little hole near the bottom : these are compressed together by certain buttons placed on the axis of a very large wheel, which is turned round by water, in the manner of an overshot mill. As soon as these buttons are slid off, the bellows are raised again by a counterpoise of weights, whereby they are made to play alternately, the one giving its blast whilst the other is rising. 16

Now a forge producing an average of nearly two tons of iron per week would no doubt require a bellows too heavy to be worked by a woman alone : particularly as we know that but a single pair of

 12 J. s. Bell, in Brit. Assoc. Rep. xxxiii. (ut supra), 736 ff. ; W. J. Macadam, The Ancient Iron Industry of Scotland : H. Scrivenor, Iron Trade, 2nd ed. pp. 32-9 ; H. G. Nicholls, Iron Making in the Forest of Dean, p. 9 ; J. M. Swank, History of Iron, 2nd ed. pp. 36-44 ; W. Fairbairn, art. Iron in Encyclop. Brit. 9th ed.
13 Macadam, op. cit. pp. 90, 91.
14 Nicholls, op. cit. p. 51.
15 Macadam, op. cit. p. 93 ; H. Wedding, Grundriss der Eisenhuttenkunde, p. 73.
16 This account is quoted from Dr. Parsons, a local antiquary of the seventeenth century, by Mr. Nicholls in his work already cited, p. 51.

VOL. XIV. NO. LV

514 THE ACCOUNT ROLL OF A          July

bellows was used. It is not difficult to suppose, however, that the woman's services might be required to adjust and readjust the clumsy connexions between the wheel and the bellows after each blast, or revolution of the wheel. This suggestion is advanced with diffidence, and will of course be taken for what it is worth.
    We have a contemporary account of the process of iron smelting on the Weald of Sussex in the sixteenth century, which does not seem to have differed very much from that used in the Weardale a hundred years earlier. The ore was first burnt or ' mollified ' with charcoal, then broken up with hammers, and finally smelted. 17    This answers no doubt to the process of blomyng somewhat vaguely pictured for us in the present document. But such smelting was incomplete, a sufficiently high temperature could not be reached with charcoal entirely to free the iron from all impurities, and accordingly it required to be wrought at the forge. At a later period this was done with a forge hammer driven by water power, 18  but it is not likely that any such device was used at Byrkeknott, particularly as no mention is made of such a hammer in the account of the tools and implements. The iron after being so worked over by hand was cut up into pieces of convenient size and weight twenty-five of them went to the hundredweight and was then ready to be stored or distributed to local smiths, who converted it into nails, horseshoes, farm implements and the like.
    Miscellaneous Remarks. Under the system of iron manufacture at which we have been looking, the great obstacle was always the scarcity of fuel. In the Forest of Dean, and on the Weald of Sussex, this became a very serious question, and in the sixteenth century we have legislation intended to check the destruction of the forests. 19    In Durham, in the fifteenth century, this matter was regulated by the bishops ; charcoal burners paid dues to the bishop's chief forester, and might use only such wood as he allowed.20    In 1430, Bishop Langley farmed out all his forests in a certain part of the Weardale to Kobert Kirkhous ' Irynbrenner ' for a period of seven years. Robert was to convert into charcoal all these woods ' except ooke, esshe, holyn, wodapiltre and crabtre ; and also except all e wode hat wol be felyes or beemes e whuche allewey shall bee fellyd by avys of the consell of e forsaid Bysshop afore at the colyers make coke eer.' Robert agrees to run forges for which the bishop will furnish him with suitable ground, and iron ore at a fixed rate. 21

17 Sussex Archaeological Collections, ii. 200 ff.
18 Swank, op. cit. pp. 44-5.
19 Of. the works cited above, but particularly the interesting essay in the Sussex Arcluieological Collections, vol. ii.
20 Bishop Hatfield's privy seal, for the appointment of a chief forester of Weardale 1377. R.O. Durham Cursitor, 145.
21 Enrolment of Indenture, Rot. D.D. L.angley, m. 3d.  R.O. Durham Cursitor, 37.

1899     FIFTEENTH-CENTURY IRON MASTER 515

It seems, then, that the forests in the County Palatine were, at this period at least, prudently guarded.

Returning to our forge at Byrkeknott, it is interesting to notice that it was practically self-sufficing. The fuel, as we have seen, came from the immediate neighbourhood, as well as the timber required for building. Most of the tools were made of local iron, and the very names of the labourers are proper to this part of the Weardale. 22

One or two points in connexion with weights and measures are particularly illustrated by our account roll. We learn that the blome consisted of fifteen stone of thirteen pounds each. This gives a blome of nearly three hundredweight, instead of one hundred-weight, which was Rogers' reckoning. 23    According to the same authority again, the stone of iron consisted of fourteen pounds, stones of other weights occur ' but these anomalous weights are relative only to wool.' 24      These conclusions, then, will need a little readjustment in respect of the iron industry in the Weardale.

Scrivenor, in his work already quoted, asserts that during the middle ages iron mines were rare in the north of England, and that even those that existed were so little worked that in 1376 it was necessary to send miners from the south to Berwick-on-Tweed.    In view of a good deal of evidence to the contrary, this statement can scarcely be accepted.    For the twelfth century we have a charter of king Stephen to bishop Pudsey, confirming to the bishop his proprietorship of the mines of Weardale. 26    Laurence, the prior of Durham, not long after this wrote :

 Saxa Dunelmia venas

Innumeri varias aeris habere solent. 27

In 1213 king John directed that smelters be sent from Durham to work at the king's mines in Ireland. 28    We might understand these words to refer to lead smelters (the Weardale abounded in lead mines) but for the fact that the sale of iron bars (esperduta) is an important item in the accounts of the bishopric at this period.' 29    The sale of such wrought iron is also accounted for in bishop Bek's

22 See Bishop Hatfield's survey, c. 1382 (Surtees Society), John Loge and John Falderly are holding exchequer land in South Bedburn (p. 56), Kobert and Eoger Mody hold messuages in North Bedburn (p. 58), and John Dalton holds land in West Auckland (pp. 29, 32)

23 Rogers, Prices, i. 170.

 24 Ibid. i. 169.

25 Scrivenor, Iron Trade, pp. 32-33.

26 Historiae Dunelmensis Scriptores Tres (Surtees Society), app. xxvii.circ. 1152-4.

27 Dialogi Laurentii Dunelmensis, lib. ii. 109-10 (Surtees Society). The exact date is unknown, but the work can be assigned to the second half of the twelfth century.

28 Rot. Lit. Glaus. 15 John, 150a.

29 We do not, unfortunately, possess any of the accounts of the Palatinate for this period, but, by reason of the vacancy of the see the county of Durham figures in the Pipe Eolls for 8 Ric. I and 11-13 John. These have been printed by the Newcastle Society of Antiquaries, 1847, 190 ff.

516     THE ACCOUNT ROLL OF A         July

receipt roll for the year 1307, the earliest document of the kind that has survived. 30 We have seen from the chief forester's patent already quoted, that forges were common enough 31 in 1377, and we have additional evidence of the same sort in a survey made under the direction of bishop Skirlaw in 1388. 32 In 1433 the bishop's iron mines in Evenwood, Raly, Hertkeld and several other places in the Weardale were farmed out to Sir William Eure at 112l. 13s. 4d. per annum. 33    The largeness of this sum implies that the production of iron was considerable. We have in these facts, then, a fair proof that during the middle ages there was, in the Weardale, a continuous and probably increasing production of iron. 34   The Weardale iron, however, was reckoned inferior in quality to the Spanish metal, and we find that even in Durham Spanish iron was used for the fortification of the castle. 35  

     In preparing this document for the press it has been thought wiser not to italicise the extensions of contracted words. No attempt has been made to mend the extremely faulty Latin of the scribe. A few obvious words or syllables have been supplied, but these are enclosed in brackets ; the word seme, which is invariably written in the singular, has, where it appeared necessary, received a final s. The capitals of the manuscript have not been preserved. A few commas and periods, required by the sense, have also been sup plied. The word blome has been retained throughout this introduction, for it is thought that its modern equivalent, bloom, has a more limited and slightly different significance.

GAILLARD THOMAS LAPSLEY.

30 Printed in the appendix (xxvi. ff.) to the Boldon Book (Surtees Society).
31 Supra, p. 514, n. 20. 
32 Ecclesiastical Commissioners, Ministers' Accounts, R.O., 220,195, fol. 35.
33 Rot. D.D. Langley, Ann. 27, m. 7. R.O. Durham Cursitor, 37.
34 Rogers, Prices, iv. 399, and see index.
35 Receiver-General's Account, 1461 ; Eccles. Comm. Ministers' Accounts, R.O., 189,816 (Repairs of the Castle).
36 From 12 June 1408 to 11 November 1409. 102 days is, of course, a mistake ; it should have been 153.

EPISCOPATUS LANGLEY

For an English tranlation of  the first few pages, click here

Byrkeknott
custos
minerarum
ferri ibidem

     Compotus Johnniis Dalton custodis et appruatoris eujusdam novae forgeae ferri apud Byrkeknott juxta Bedbourne, a duodecimo die Junii Regni Henrici Quarti nono et Consecrationis Domini Thomae Dunelmensis Episcopi secundo, usque eundem diem tunc proximo sequentem, et ab illo die usque Festum Sancti Martini extunc proximo sequens anno ejusdem Regis undecimo et Consecrationis praedicti Episcopi quinto, per unum annum integrum et cii dies. 36

| Arreragia

     Nulla quia hie primo.

Summa nichil.

FIFTEENTH-CENTURY IRON MASTER                                      517

Recepta

           Item respondet de xxxiil. receptis de Willelmo Chauncellor, Con-  stabulario Dunolmi,  per indenturam. Et de   .  .  .  .  .    xvs. xd. receptis [de] dicto Constabulario per manus Radulphi Eure militis denarios solventis ut firma sua minerae carbonum de Rayley  .  .  .  .  .   per inden- turam.

Summa totalis receptae iiii** viiil.  xvs. xid. et probatur.

Mundatio
Situs Forgeii
[sic]

          De quibus idem computat soluta Johanni Gylle, smythman, mun- danti situm pro una nova forgea desuper edificanda pro combustione minerae ferri ibidem, ex conventione secum facta per praedictum com- putatorem, in grosso, xiiis. viiid. Et in custibus et expensis ejusd[em] equitantis cum Thoma Chyld usque Blakamore pro uno alio forgeo ibidem videndo, ita quod artifices istud forgeum facientes melius poterit informare in edificatione ejusdem, eundi morandi et redeundi ; per iii dies [et] dimidium, ad vid., xxd.

xvs. iiiid.

Summa xvs. iiiid.

Factura de
le Watergate

           Et soluta Rogero Colly cementario, Roberto Hopynland, Johanni   Symmesone,  Johanni Kyllyngham  et  Johanni Dyksone laborariis,  operantibus et facientibus unum Watergate extendentem de Heribourne usque  dictum  forgeum,   facientibus  unam  gutteram lapideam et illam in dicto Watergate ponentibus, eo quod fundamentum terreum eiusdem nimis debile et insufficiens existit pro aqua dicto forgeo serviendo, per xxx dies, quolibet capiente per diem iiiid. una cum iiiid. solutis uxori Roberti Hoppynland ipsis auxilianti in opere praedicto prout patet per quemdam librum papiri nomina et Summae [sic] continentem, super hunc compotum ostensum et examinatum, 1s. iiiid.

1s iiiid

Summa 1s. iiiid.

Factura
Domus
Forgeii,
Rotae
Aquaticae,
les spowtes.
Belows, et
aliorum
necessari-
orum infra
dictum
forgeum

          Et in stipendio Thomae Gylle carpentarii per vi septimanas ante  Festum  Assumptionis  Beatae  Mariae anno dicti Regis nono, ad iiis., operantis et de novo facientis unam rotam aquaticam pro dicta forgea, hostia  et  les spowtes lignea ducentia aquam a dicto  Watergate usque dictam rotam pendentem, etiam les belowes et alia instrumenta lignea  dicto forgeo necessaria de novo facientis ex conventione secum facta xviiis.     Et in stipendiis  Willelmi  Prestone  et  Johannis   Crowe pro operibus praedictis  maeremium  prosternentium,  et  praedicto Thomae auxiliantium in opere praedicto, per tempus supradictum, utroque capiente in septimana iis. vid., deductis vid. pro una die qua praedictus Johannes vacavit, xxixs. vid.
          Et in stipendio Rogeri Colly carpentarii facientis et edificantis de novo quatuor domos ibidem, per quatuor dies ad vd., xxd. Et in stipendio Johannis Dyksone eidem servientis, per idem tempus ad iiiid., xvid. Et in sarratione maeremii pro les spowtes, hostiis, et aliis necessariis supradictis,   ex  conventione   cum  ii  sarratoribus  facta,   in  grosso,
iiiis. id.   Et in stipendio Johannis Colersowe cum plaustro suo cariantis xiiii   plaustratas   maeremii  de  parco  de   Bedbourne  et   le   Blakbank pro  forgea  praedicta  cum  eodem facienda, plaustrata ad viiid.,   una cum   xd.   solutis  eidem  pro  cariagio  unius  axeltre  per  ipsum  cariati de parco de Blakbank usque dictam forgeam pro le Waterwhelle ibidem xs. iid. Et in stipendio Johannis Gylle facientis les blomeharthes 37 et

 37 Smelting furnaces.

518 THE ACCOUNT ROLL OF A     July

caminum forgeae praedictae, ex conventione secum facta in grosso, iiis. iiiid.     E t in  stipendio eiusdem dictum forgeum cum turbis cooperentis ad tascam .  .  .  .   vs

xxvs. viid. [sic]

Summa lxiiis. id

Emptio et
Factura
instru-
mentorum

Et  in  ii  paribus   lysours, 38  ii axes, iii tribulis ferri,  i rake, i chilour, 39 una  cum  aliis  instrumentis ferreis   .   .   .   .    Et in ii paribus belowes emptis apud [blank] iuxta Rypon per Johannem Falderly seniorem
 .  .   .   .   .  iiiis. iiiid. Et in ii mensuris pro petris minerae ibidem mensur- andis,  qualibet continente ii bussellas iiis. vid. Et soluta Johanni Smyth de Aukland pro ferro ab ipso empto pro diversis instrumentis ferreis pro lucratione minerae petrae in querrura ibidem faciendis, una cum emen- datione et acutatione eorumdem per tempus huius compoti iis. iiid.     Et soluta Roberto Hedley pro ii hopes 40 [et] ii gogoynes 41 ferri ponderanti- bus [blank] lb ab ipso emptis pro fine del axeltre rotae aquaticae ibidem
                                                                                         iis. iiid.
xxis. Et eidem pro centena spykynges 42 xd, ccclx schotsemnaylle, 43 c ad
                                                     iiid.
viiid.,   iis. iiid.,  c clavis parvis ab ipso emptis pro opere praedicto iiis. vd.
Et in stipendio Johannis Smyth de Westaukeland pro fabricatione xxii petrarum ferri receptarum de exitibus novae forgeae ut extra in dorso ; in iii towirens, 44  iii porres alias naundirens, 45 i pari balances pro ferro cum eiusdem ponderibus, iii hamours, i axe, necnon alia diversa instrumenta  ferrea ibidem emendata ex conventione secum facta, in grosso, viis. viiid. Et in uno cribro pro minera purificanda empta xiid. mentis 

Reddit de
omnibus
istis instru-
mentis
lxxviis. ixd.
Summa lxxviis. ixd.
Emptio
Lucratio et
cariagum
petrae
minerae
ferri
           Et in liii duodenis petrae minerae ferri de Radulpho de Eure milite pro ferro faciendo, duodena ad iis., ex conventione secum facta per computatorem emptis cvis. Et in cariagio dictarum liii duodenarum  petrae de praedictis puteis usque forgeam praedictam, duodena ad iis., cvis.   Et  in  stipendio  Radulphi   Sclater  cum plaustro suo,  per  xii dies ad viiid., cariantis sindres a dicto campo de Hopyland usque dictum forgeum pro ferro novo ibidem cum eisdein temperando,  ex conventione per computatorem cum eodem facta, viiis. Et in lucratione dictarum liii petrae minerae ferri, duodena continente iii fotheres, videlicet de puteis de Rayley xx duodenae i fother, Hertkeld xviii duodenae, Morepytt xiiii duodenae ii fothers, duodena ad  vs.,  ex conventione cum dictis laborariis per istum computatorem facta xiiil. vs.
xiiil. vs. Summa xiiil. vs.

 38    I can find no explanation of this word. One is tempted to mend it to Sysours.
39     A kind of rake, a coul-rake. Catholicon Anglicum, s.v. Choller.
40     Hoops or bands.
41     Gudgeons : ' in some parts of England a piece of projecting iron at each end of a roller which connects it with the frame is still called a gudgeon.' Promptorium Parvulorum, s.v. Goiun, n. Cotgrave gives Goujon = The gudgeon of the spindle of a wheel.
42     A large nail or spike, Catholicon Anglicum, s.v. Spykynge, Ducange, s.v. Taringa.
43     Short nails ; this seems to be a local word, sea Dr. Greenwell's glossary attached to his edition of Bishop Hatfield's Survey (Surtees Society).
44    Probably tools for handling masses of hot iron, from M.E. Taw = To tackle. ''
45    Pokers, see W. E. Brockett, Glossary of North Country Words.

1899  FIFTEENTH-CENTURY IRON MASTER 519

Nil        Die Sabbati xviio Novembris anno dicti Regis xo pro septimana praece- dente. Et soluta Johanni Mody colier prosternenti subboscum in parco Domini de Bedbourne et inde quatuor duodenas carbonis vocatur charcole [com] burenti pro arsura ferri minerae praedictae, duodena ad iis., ex conventione per computationem cum eodem facta, viiis. Et in stipendio Thomae Whenfell comburentis i duodenam carbonis iis. Et in cariagio dictarum quatuor duodenarum carbonis praedicti de parco praedicto usque praedictam  forgeam,  duodena  ad  vid., iis.          Et in stipendio Johannis  Gylle, smythman alias blomer, incipientis et attemptantis ad fabricandum ferrum, unde nullum praeficuum provenit ista septimana per sacramentum computatoris  iis.     Et   Willelmo  Aycle pro custibus et expensis suis equanti usque Wakfeld et Rotheram pro operariis, videlicet blomers et coliers, pro dicto forgeo perquirendo iis.
xvi s . Summa xvis.
Nil        Die Sabbati xxiiiito Novembris anno eodem pro septimana praecedenti. Et soluta praedicto Johanni Mody, in parco praefato subboscum proster- nenti, et inde quatuor duodenas carbonum comburentis pro forgeo praedicto,   duodena ad iis.,   ut  supra,   viiis.   Et soluta pro cariagio dictarum  quatuor duodenarum carbonum deinde usque dictum forgeum iis.   Et in stipendio Johannis Gylle,  smythman alias blomer,  attemptantis ad fabricandum ferrum, unde nullum praeficuum provenit per sacramentum computatoris iiis. iid.
xiiiis. iid. Summa xiiiis. iid
vi blomes           Die Sabbati primo Decembris qua46 accidit Festum Sancti Andreae Apostoli. Et soluta praedicto Johanni Mody et sociis prosternentibus boscum in parco praedicto et inde comburentibus quatuor duodenas [dimidiam i seme47 above the line] pro opere praedicto, duodena ut supra, ixs. iid.   Et in cariagio quatuor duodenarum sinders de [blank] usque dictum forgeum pro temperatione ferri ibidem de novo faciendo iiiis. Et Johanni Gylle  blomer  pro  factura  vi  blomes  ista septimana,  blome ad vid. iiis.
xvis. iid. Summa xvis. iid.
iii blomes           Die Sabbati viii to Decembris Festum Nicholai et Conceptionis Beatae Mariae.      Et praedicto Johanni Mody et sociis comburentibus quatuor duodenas   carbonum  ibidem,   capientibus  pro  duodena  ut  supra,  viiis. Et in cariagio eorumdem deinde usque dictum forgeum iis.     Et Johanni Gylle facienti  iii blomes  ista  septimana  xviiid.     Et  non  plura  ista  septi-  mana quia les belowes fuerunt fracti. Et in stipendio uxoris praedicti Johannis Gylle ipsi auxiliantis petras frangenti et cribranti viid. Et in oleo empto pro les belowes unguendo viiid. Et in factura unius novae portae parci praedicti pro cariagio carbonum melius faciendo iiiid.
xiiis. id. Summa xiiis. id.
  Die Sabbati xvmo Decembris. Et soluta praedicto Johanni Mody com- burenti quatuor duodenas [et] dimidiam carbonum in parco praedicto ixs.

46    [For 'pro septimana praecedenti qua,' the feast-days of the week preceding being regularly mentioned. In the next paragraph the statement is still further abbre- viated. ED. E. H. R.~]
47    A measure of wood or charcoal, probably so much as one horse could draw. It was the twelfth part of a duodena.

520 THE ACCOUNT ROLL OF A      July

viii blomes Et in cariagio eorumdem deinde usque dictum forgeum iis. Et soluta praedicto Johanni Gylle blomer facienti viii blomes ista septimana, le blome ut supra, iiiis. Et in corda empta pro le belowes ibidem, loco alterius cordae disruptae iiid.
 xvs. vid. Summa xvs. vid.
vi blomes            Die Sabbati xxiido Decembris Festum Sancti Thomae Apostoli accidit. Et soluta praedicto Johanni Mody comburenti in parco praedicto v duo- denas carbonum, ut supra, xs. Et in cariagio eorumdem deinde usque forgeam praedictam iis. vid. Et praedicto Johanni Gylle facienti vi blomes ferri eadem septimana iiis.  Et Johanni de Logge, fabro, fabricanti et in pecias dolanti iiii blomes ista septimana, capiente pro quolibet blome ad tascam viid., iis. iiiid. Et uxori dicti Johannis Gylle le bellowes ibidem sufflanti  et  petras  minerae frangenti viid.   Et in portagio unius towyrene de forgeo praedicto usque Westaukeland pro emendatione ejusdem id.
xviiis. vid. Summa xviiis. vid.
Nil           Die Sabbati vto Januarii Festum Circumcisionis Domini accidit. Et praedicto Johanni del Logge, fabro, fabricanti et in pecias dolanti viii blomes ferri  iiiis. viiid.   Et in stipendio Thomae Whenfell, forman, laborantis tam cum  Johanne  Gille,  blomsmyth,  in prima factura quam cum Johanne Logge, fabro, in fabricatione et purificatione ferri ista  septimana, capientis pro quolibet blome, videlicet pro prima factura iid. [above the line] et fabricatione et purificatione iiid. [above the line] ejusdem, et sic de quolibet blome in toto vd., ut pro xii blomes ista septi- mana vs.  Et uxori praedicti  Johannis laboranti ad  le belewes ista septimana xiid. Et in cervisia dictis laborariis data ista septimana id
xs. ixd. Summa xs. ixd.
vi blomes           Die Sabbati xiio  die Januarii.   Et soluta praedicto  Johanni  Mody pro iiii duodenis ii semes carbonum, duodena ad iis. ut supra, vis. iiiid. Et in cariagio  eorumdem  de  parco  praedicto  usque  dictum forgeum  iis.   Et  Johanni Gylle, blomesmyth, facienti vi blomes, ut supra, iiis. Et Johanni Loge, fabro, dictos vi blomes fabricanti et in pecias dolanti iiis. vid. Et Thomae Wynfell, forman, pro labore suo in dictis vi blomes faciendis et purificandis iis. vid. Et uxori dicti Johannis Gylle ad les folles48 laboranti per istam septimanam xiid.
xviiis. iiiid. Summa xviiis. iiiid.
vi blomes           Die Sabbati xix Januarii. Et soluta praedicto Johanni Mody pro v duodenis [et] dimidia carbonum perquisitis, ut supra, xis. Et soluta pro cariagio vi duodenarum et  vi  semes  de  parco  praedicto  usque  forgeum praedictum iis. vid.    Et soluta  Johanni Gylle, blomer, facienti vi blomes ista septimana iiis.    Et  Johanni Loge, fabro, vi blomes fabricanti et in pecias  dolanti   iiis. vid.    Et  Thomae  Wynfell,  forman,  ibidem laboranti ista septimana iis. vid. Et soluta pro i trowe49 empto pro le stryngherth50

 48    Probably the flames or fire which required to be blown with the bellows. I have not found any satisfactory derivation of the word, but cf. infra, February 9, where the phrase ' folles sufflans ' seems to point to the explanation I have suggested.
49    Probably a trough or pipe, see Jamieson, Dictionary of the Scottish Language, s.v. Trows.
50    The hearth or furnace at which the iron was heated for its second working.

FIFTEENTH-CENTURY IRON MASTER 521

  iiiid.     Et soluta   Johanni  Felanceby  pro  ii swerdblad51 pro les  belowes iid.   Et pro emendatione des tanges52 ferreorum ibidem id.
xxiiis. id. Summa xxiiiis. id
vi blomes           Septimana finiente die Sabbati xxvito Januarii qua accidit Conversio Sancti Pauli.    Et soluta praedicto Johanni Mody pro iii duodenis [et] dimidia et v semes carbonum perquisitis, ut supra, viis. xd. Et in cariagio eorumdem de parco praedicto usque forgeam praedictam xxd. Et Johanni Gylle, blomer, facienti vi blomes ferri, ut supra, iiis.    Et Johanni Loge,  fabro, fabricanti et in pecias dolanti iiii blomes, ut supra, iis. viiid. Et Thomae Whynfell, forman, super fabricatione et factura dictorum blomes operanti xxd. Et uxori Johannis Gylle dictis operariis adjuvanti xd.
xxviis. viiid. Summa xxviis. viiid.
v blomes           Septimana finiente die Sabbati iido Februarii qua accidit Purificatio Beatae Mariae.    Et Johanni Mody pro iii duodenarum [et] iiii semes carbo- num combustione ut supra vis. viiid.     Et pro cariagio eorumdem de praedicto parco usque forgeum praedictum xviiid.     Et Johanni Gylle, blomer, facienti v blomes ista septimana iis. vd.     Et Thomae Whynfelle  forman, ibidem laboranti ista septimana xiid.
xis. viiid. Summa xis. viiid.
vi blomes            Die Sabbati ixo die Februarii.   Et praedicto Johanni Mody comburenti v duodenas [et] iii semes carbonum in dicto parco xs. vid. Et in cariagio eorumdem deinde usque forgeum praedictum iis. ixd.   Et Johanni Gylle, blomer, facienti vi blomes, ut supra, iiis.     Et Johanni Loge, fabro, fabri-  canti et in pecias dolanti xv blomes ista septimana, ut supra, viiis. ixd. Et Thomae  Whenfell,   forman,  dictis  Johanni  Gylle et  Johanni Loge auxilianti  ista  septimana vs. iiid.     Et uxori praedicti  Johannis  Gylle,  folles  sufflanti  xxd.     Et  in  cervisia  data operariis praedictis de regardo id.
xxxiis. Summa xxxiis.
vi blomes          Die Sabbati xvio Februarii.     Et Johanni Mody comburenti iiii duodenas [et] i seme carbonum in parco praedicto pro operibus praedictis, ut supra, ixs. iiiid.   Et in cariagio eorumdem deinde usque dictum forgeum iis.   Et Johanni Gylle, blomer, facienti vi blomes, ut supra, iiis.     Et Thomae  Whenfell,  forman,  ibidem laboranti ista septimana xvd.  Et in cervisia empta et dictis laborariis data ista septimana id.
xiiiis. vid. Summa xiiiis. vid
v blomes           Septimana finiente xxiiitio die Februarii qua accidit Cathedra Sancti Petri. Et soluta Johanni Mody, comburenti iiii duodenas [et] viii semes car- bonum in parco praedicto, ut supra, ixs. iiiid. Et in cariagio eorumdem deinde usque dictum forgeum iis. iiiid. Et Johanni Gylle, blomer, facienti  v blomes ista septimana iis. vid.    Et Johanni Loge, fabro, fabricanti et in pecias dolanti ix blomes ista septimana, ut supra, vs. iiid.     Et   Thomae Whenfell, forman, ibidem laboranti ista septimana iis. vid.     Et uxori Johannis Gylle dictis operariis auxilianti ad les belowes xiiiid.    Et in cervisia dictis laborariis data id.
xxiiis. iid. Summa xxiiis. iid.

51     I can find no explanation for this word.
52    Tongs. (Brockett.)

522 THE ACCOUNT ROLL OF A July

vii blomes            Septimana finiente die Sabbati secundo Martii qua accidit Festum Sancti Matthiae.     Et soluta  Johanni  Mody comburenti  iiii  duodenas [et] vi semes carbonum in parco praedicto, capiente ut supra, ixs.     Et in cariagio eorumdem deinde usque dictam forgeam iis. iiid.     Et Johanni Gylle, blomer, facienti vii blomes ista septimana iiis. vid.     Et Thomae Whenfell, forman, ibidem laboranti ista septimana xvd
xvis. Summa xvis.
vii blomes           Die Sabbati ixo Martii . Et soluta praedicto Johanni Mody comburenti iiii, duodenas [et] ix seme carbonum in parco praedicto ixs. vid.    Et in cariagio eorumdem deinde usque dictum forgeum  iis.  iiiid.     Et Johanni  Gylle, blomer, pro factura vii blomes ferri  iiis. vid. Et Thomae Whynfell, forman, ibidem laboranti xvd. Et soluta pro fabricatione i hake53 [et] i hamour pro petra minerae ibidem frangenda iiid.   Et pro cervisia dictis laborariis ista septimana data id.
xvis. xid. Summa  xvis. xid.
viii blomes           Die Sabbati xvio Martii.     Et praedicto Johanni Mody comburenti car- bones in parco praedicto, videlicet ii duodenas [et] x semes, viis. viiid. Et in cariagio  eorumdem  deinde  usque  dictum forgeum iiiis.     Et Johanni  Gylle, blomer, pro factura viii blomes, iiiis.      Et Thomae Whynfell, for- man, praedictum  Johannem [sic] auxilianti et ferrum in pecias colpanti xvd.     Et uxori Johannis Gylle petras minerae ferri adimanti pro xxi blomes, capiente pro singulo blome ob., xd. ob. Et in cervisia dictis laborariis data ista septimana id.
xvs. ixd. ob. Summa xvs. ixd. ob.
v blomes          Die Sabbati xxiiitio Martii. Et soluta supradicto Johanni Mody combu- renti iii duodenas [et] vi semes carbonum in parco praedicto viis.    Et pro cariagio  eorumdem  deinde  usque  dictum  forgeum xxid.        Et praedicto Jonanni Gylle, blomer, pro factura v blomes ferri iis. vid. Et Johanni de Loge,  fabro,  fabricanti  et  in pecias dolanti  xi blomes ferri  vis. id.     Et Thomae  Whynfell,  forman,  ipsis auxilianti  iis. id.     Et  uxori  Johannis Gylle pro diversis laboribus suis ista septimana xiiiid.     Et in oleo empto pro les belowes unguendo viid.
xxis. iiid. Summa xxis. iiid.
vi blomes           Septimana finiente die Sabbati xxxo Martii qua accidit Annunciationis Dominica.    Et soluta Radulpho Sclater pro cariagio iii duodenarum et dimidiae  carbonum  de  parco praedicto usque forgeam praedictam  xxid. Et pro combustione eorumdem carbonum viis. Et Johanni Gylle, blomer,  pro factura vi blomes ferri iiis.     Et Johanni Loge, fabro, fabricanti et in pecias dolanti vi blomes iiis. vid.     Et  Thomae Whenfeld, forman, pro labore suo iis. vid.    Et  Willelmo de Cowton,  fabro,  emendanti diversa necessaria ferrea iiiid.     Et uxori dicti  Johannis  Gylle,  ibidem laboranti ista septimana ixd.
xviiis. xd. Summa xviiis. xd.

 53     A strong, two-toothed pickaxe or hoe. Brockett, s.v. Hack.

FIFTEENTH-CENTURY IRON MASTER 523

v blomes           Die Sabbati vito  Aprilis. Et soluta Johanni Mody comburenti quatuor duodenas [et] x semes ixs. viiid. Et in cariagio eorumdem deinde usque dictum  forgeum  iis.  iiiid.     Et  Johanni  Gylle,  blomer, facienti v blomes iis. vid. Et Thomae Whynfeld, forman, ibidem laboranti, xvd.
xvs. . ixd. Summa xvs. ixd.
iii blomes          Septimana finiente die Sabbati xiiio Aprilis qua accidit Festum Paschae. Et in cariagio i duodenae carbonum cariatae de dicto parco usque dictum forgeum vid. Et Johanni Gylle, blomer, facienti iii blomes, xviiid. Et  Johanni Loge, fabro, fabricanti et in pecias dolanti vi blomes iiis. vid. Et Thomae  Whynfeld,   forman,  ibidem laboranti,  per idem tempus,  iis. vid. Et uxori Johannis Gylle, folles sufflanti xiid.
 ixs. Summa ixs.
vi blomcs           Die Sabbati xxo Aprilis.    Et soluta Johanni Mody comburenti iiii duodenas [et] ix semes carbonum in parco praedicto ixs. vid.    Et in cariagio eorumdem deinde usque dictum forgeum iis. iiiid. ob. Et Johanni Gylle, blomer, facienti vi blomes, ut supra, iiis. Et Thomae Whenfeld,  forman,   eidem  serviente,   per tempus praedictum  xiid.     Et in cervisia data praefatis laborariis ista septimana iid.
xvi s . ob.  Summa xvis. ob.
vi blomes           Die Sabbati xxviio Aprilis. Et soluta Johannis Mody comburenti iiii duodenas carbonum in parco praedicto viiis. Et in cariagio eorumdem deinde usque dictum forgeum iis.     Et soluta  Johanni Gylle, blomer, facienti  vi blomes ista septimana  iiis.     Et uxori praedicti   Johannis  ibidem  operanti per istam septimanam et septimanam praecedentem vid. Et in cervisia dictis laborariis data viiid.     Et Thomae Whynfell, forman, ibidem  laboranti   xiid.     Et  in  ii  bokettes ligni  pro aqua  haurienda  viid. Et Willelmo Cowton diversa instrumenta ferrea ibidem emendanti iiid.
xvis. Summa xvis.
vi blomes            Septimana  finiente  die  Sabbati iiiito  Maii qua accidit Festum Philippi et Jacobi et Inventionis Sanctae Crucis.     Et soluta Johanni Mody com- burenti quatuor duodenas [et] ii semes carbonum in parco praedicto viiis. iiiid.      Et  in  cariagio  eorumdem  deinde  usque  dictum  forgeum  iis.  iid. Et Johanni Gylle, blomer,   facienti  vi blomes iiis.     Et  Johanni  Loge,  fabro, fabricanti et in pecias dolanti vi blomes iiis. vid. Et Thomae Whenfeld, forman, ibidem laboranti iis. vid. Et uxori Johannis Gylle ibidem laboranti per tempus  praedictum  viiid.     Et  in cervisia dictis laborariis empta et data id.
xxs. iiid. Summa xxs. iiid.
 v blomes          Die Sabbati xio Maii.     Et Johanni Mody comburenti vi duodenas carbonum in parco praedicto xiis. Et in cariagio eorumdem deinde usque dictum forgeum iiis.     Et Johanni Gylle,  blomer, facienti v blomes iis. vid. Et  Johanni  Loge,   fabro,   fabricanti  vi blomes  et  in pecias ferri dolanti iiis. vid.     Et  Thomae  Whenfeld,  forman,  ibidem laboranti per istam septimanam iis. vid. Et uxori Johannis Gylle ibidem laboranti viiid.
 xxiiis. iid. Summa xxiiiis. iid.

524 THE ACCOUNT ROLL OF A July

vii blomes           Septimana finiente xviiio Mail qua accidit Festum  Ascencionis Domini. Et  soluta  Johanni  Mody comburenti  vi duodenas carbonum in parco ibidem xiis.     Et in cariagio eorumdem deinde usque dictum  forgeum iiis. Et  Johanni  Gylle,  blomer,  facienti  vii blomes  iiis. vid.     Et  Thomae Whenfell,  forman,  ibidem  laboranti per istam septimanam iis. ixd.     Et uxori  Johannis  Gylle  ibidem  laboranti ixd.     Et   in cervisia dictis laborariis data id.
xxvs. viid. Summa xxvs. viid.
vi blomes           Die Sabbati xxvo to die Maii.   Et soluta  Johanni  Mody comburenti v duodenas [et] vi semes carbonum in parco praedicto xs. viiid.     Et  in cariagio eorumdem deinde usque dictum forgeum iis. xd.     Et Johanni Gylle,  blomer,  facienti  vi blomes iiis.     Et  Johanni Loge  fabricanti vi blomes  iiis. vid.     Et  Thomae  Wenfell,  forman,  ibidem  laboranti iis. vid. Et uxori Johannis Gylle ibidem laboranti ixd.  Et in cervisia dictis laborariis data id.
xxiiis. iiiid Summa xxiiis. iiiid.
iii blomes           Septimana finiente die Sabbati primo Junii qua accidit Festum Pentecostis.     Et soluta  Johanni Mody comburenti i duodenam [et] vi semes carbonum in parco praedicto iiis.   Et in cariagio eorumdem usque dictum forgeum ixd.     Et  Johanni  Gylle, blomer, facienti iii blomes xviiid. Et  Thomae   Whenfell,  forman,  ibidem  laboranti  vid.     Et  in  cervisia dictis laborariis data id.
vs. xd. Summa vs. xd.
viii blomes           Die Sabbati viiito Junii. Et soluta praedicto Johanni Mody comburenti vii duodenas [et] v semes carbonum in parco praedicto xiiiis. xd. Et in cariagio eorumdem deinde usque dictum forgeum iiis. viiid. Et Johanni Gylle,  blomer,  facienti  viii  blomes  iiiis.     Et  Johanni  Loge,  fabro, fabricanti  et in pecias dolanti ix blomes vs. iiid.     Et uxori praedicti Johannis  Gylle,  pro stipendio suo ista septimana xvd.     Et in cervisia empta ista septimana id.
xxxiis. xd. Summa xxxiis. xd.
x blomes           Septimana finiente die sabbati xvo Junii qua accidit Festum Sancti Barnabe. Et soluta Johanni Mody comburenti v duodenas carbonum in parco praedicto xs. Et in cariagio dictorum carbonum iis. vid.  Et Johanni Gylle,  blomer,  facienti x blomes vs.   Et  Johanni  Loge,  fabro, fabricanti et in pecias dolanti vii blomes iiiis. id. Et Thomae Whenfell, forman, ibidem laboranti iis. xid. Et uxori Thomae Whenfell ibidem laboranti ista septi- mana viid.     Et  in  cervisia dictis laborariis data id.     Et uxori  Johannis Gylle ibidem laboranti vd.
xxvs. viid. Summa xxvs. vii .
viii blomes           Die Sabbati xxiio Junii.     Et  Johanni  Mody  comburenti v duodenas [et]  ix  semes  carbonum  in  parco  praedicto  xis.  vid.      Et   in   cariagio eorumdem  iis. xd.     Et   Johanni   Gylle,  blomer,  facienti viii blomes iiiis. Et  Johanni  Loge,  fabro,  fabricanti et in pecias dolanti viii blomes iiiis. viiid.     Et Thomae Whenfell, forman, ibidem laboranti iiis. iiiid.  Et uxori Johannis Gylle ibidem laboranti super factura viii blomes iiiid.   Et uxori
   

1899  FIFTEENTH-CENTURY IRON MASTER 525

  Thomae Whenfell ibidem laboranti viiid. Et in cervisia dictis laborariis data id.
 xxviis. vd. Summa xxviis. vd.
iii blomes           Septimana finiente die Sabbati xxixo Junii qua accidit Festum Nativi- tatis  Johannis  Baptistae  [et]  Apostolorum  Petri  et  Pauli.     Et Johanni Mody comburenti iiii duodenas carbonum in parco praedicto viiis. Et in cariagio  ii  duodenarum  carbonum  xiid.     Et  Johanni  Gylle,  blomer, facienti  iiii blomes  iis.     Et  Johanni Loge,  fabro,  fabricanti et in pecias dolanti vi blomes iiis. vid.     Et  Thomae  Whenfell,  forman,  ibidem labo- ranti iis. vid.     Et uxori praedicti  Thomae laboranti ad le stryngherth vid. Et uxori  Johannis  Gylle  laboranti  ad le blomeherth iid.     Et in cervisia dictis operariis data id.
xviis. ixd. Summa xviis. ixd.
            Die Sabbati vito Julii.     Et pro vi duodenis [et] iiii semes carbonum emptis  xiis.  viiid.     Et  pro  cariagio  eorumdem  iiis. iid.     Et  Johanni Gylle, blomer, facienti v blomes iis. vid. Et Thomae Whenfell, forman, ibidem laboranti iis. vid. Et soluta uxori Johannis Gylle laboranti ad le blomeherth iid. ob.     Et uxori Thomae Whenfell laboranti ad le stryng- herth vid. Et in cervisia dictis laborariis data ista septimana id.
xxvs. id. ob. Summa xxvs. id. ob.
             Septimana finiente die Sabbati xiii Julii qua accidit Translatio Sancti Thomae.   Et in vi duodenis [et] iiii semes carbonum emptis xiis. viiid.     Et in  cariagio  eorumdem  iiiis.  iid.     Et Johanni Gylle, blomer, facienti iiii blomes  iis.     Et  Johanni  Loge fabricanti et  in  pecias  dolanti  ix  blomes vs.iiid.     Et  Thomae  Whynfell ibidem operanti  per  tempus  praedictum iiis. ixd.     Et uxori ejusdem Thomae operanti ad le stryngherth per tempus praedictum ixd.     Et uxori Johannis Gylle operanti ad le blomeharthe per tempus praedictum iid.     Et in cervisia dictis laborariis data id.     Et pro obstupatione et ernendatione unius defectus stagni aquae ibidem iid.
xxviiis. Summa xxviiis.
 iiii blomes            Septimana  finiente  die  Sabbati  xxo  Julii  qua  accidit  Festum  Sancti Margaretae.       Et   in   v  duodenis  [et]  ii  semes  carbonum  xs.  iiiid.      Et in cariagio eorumdem iis. viiid.     Et  Johanni  Gylle,  blomer,  facienti iiii blomes iis.     Et Thomae Whenfell, forman, ibidem operanti pro praedictis iiii blomes faciendis,  viiid.     Et  uxori  praedicti  Johannis   Gylle ibidem laboranti iid. Et in cervisia data eisdem laborariis id.
xvs. xid. Summa xvs. xid.
Nil           Septimana finiente die Sabbati xxvii Julii qua accidit Festum Sancti Jacobi. Et soluta pro i duodena et dimidia carbonum iiis. Et pro cariagio eorumdem ixd. Et Johanni Loge fabricanti et in pecias dolanti vii blomes iiiis. id.     Et Thomae Whenfell,  forman,  ibidem dicto Johanni in opere praedicto auxilianti iis. xid. Et uxori praedicti Thomae folles sufflanti in opere praedicto faciendo viid. Et in cervisia dictis operariis data id.
 xis. vd. Summa xis. vd.
           Septimana finiente die Sabbati tertio Augusti qua accidit Ad vincula Sancti Petri. Et soluta pro ii duodenis [et] dimidia carbonum vs.      Et

526 THE ACCOUNT ROLL OF A July

ix blomes pro cariagio iii duodenarum carbonum xviiid.     Et Johanni Gylle, blomer, pro factura ix blomes iiiis. vid.     Et uxori suae eidem adjuvanti in opere praedicto perficiendo iiiid. ob.     Et Johanni Loge, fabro, fabricanti et in pecias dolanti v blomes iis. xid.     Et Thomae Whenfell, forman, ibidem laboranti super fabricatione et le blomyng v blomes iis. id.       Et uxori ejusdem Thomae folles sufflanti in v blomes ardendis iid. ob.     Et in sti- pendio unius fabri emendantis et acuentis diversa instrumenta ferrea ibidem, nee [sic] imponentis unum gojon ferreum in fine axeltre rotae aquaticae ibidem xiid.     Et in cervisia dictis laborariis data id.
 xviis. viiid. Summa xviis. viiid.
vi blomes            Septimana finiente die Sabbati xo Augusti qua accidit Festum Sancti Laurentii.     Et in iiii duodenis carbonum viiis.     Et  in  stipendio  Johannis  Gylle,  blomer,  facientis  vi  blomes  iiis.     Et  in  stipendio uxoris ejusdem sibi  adjuvantis  iiid.     Et  soluta  Johanni  Loge  fabricanti  et  in  pecias dolanti iiii blomes iis. iiiid.     Et Thomae Whynfell, forman, ibidem labo- ranti iis. id.     Et uxori suae ibidem laboranti in opere praedicto faciendo iiiid.     Et in cervisia empta et dictis laborariis data id.
xviiis. id. Summa xviiis. id.
 v bion.es            Septimana  terminante  die  Sabbati  xviio Augusti accidit Assumptio Beatae  Mariae.     Et  pro  ii  duodenis  carbonum  iiiis.     Et  pro  cariagio eorumdem xiid.     Et Johanni Gylle, blomer, facienti v blomes iis. vid. Et uxori ejusdem ibidem operanti per tempus praedictum iid. ob.   Et Johanni Loge,  fabricanti  v  blomes  iis. xid.      Et  uxori  Thomae  Whenfell pro v blomes vd.     Et Thomae Whenfell, forman, pro stipendio [suo] ibidem laboranti per tempus praedictum xxd.     Et pro cervisia dictis laborariis data id.
xiis. ixd. ob. Summa xiis. ixd. ob.
vi blomes            Septimana  finiente  die  Sabbati  xxiii to  Augusti  qua  accidit  Festum Sancti Bartholomew.  Et in iiii duodenis [et] iii semes carbonum viiis. vid. Et  iii cariagio eorumdem iis. iiid. Et Johanni Gylle, blomer, pro vi blomes iiis. Et uxori ejusdem pro opere suo laboranti ibidem iiid. Et Johanni Loge, fabricanti  v blomes  iis. xid.     Et  Thomae  Whynfell,  forman, ibidem operanti  iis. id.     Et uxori ejusdem pro stipendio suo ibidem laboranti vd. Et in cervisia empta et dictis operariis data id.
xixs. vid. Summa xixs. vid.
vi blomes              Die Sabbati ultimo Augusti. Et in v duodenis [et] iii semes carbonum xs. vid.     Et  in  cariagio v  duodenarum  iis. vid.    Et  in  stipendio  Johannis  Gylle, blomer, facientis vi blomes iiis.     Et in stipendio uxoris suae eidem adjuvantis in opere praedicto iiid.     Et in stipendio Johannis Loge fabri- cantis vi blomes iiiis. id.     Et in stipendio  Thomae  Whenfell,  forman, ibidem laborantis iis. xid.     Et soluta uxori praedicti Thomae ibidem laboranti viid.     Et in cervisia empta et dictis laborariis data id.     Et in emendatione instrumentorum ferreorum et le fleme 54 forgei iiiid. xxiiii; - iilrf .
xxiiiis.iiid. Summa xxiiiis. iiid.
            Die Sabbati viio Septembris Translatio Sancti Cuthberti.     Et in iiii duodenarum [et] ix semes carbonum combustione ixs. vid. Et in cariagio

54 Probably the mill-race, cf. M.E. Flemen = to flow.

1899 FIFTEENTH-CENTURY IRON MASTER . 527

vi blomes eorumdem  iis.  mid.     Et  John  Gylle,  blomer,  pro factura vi blomes iiis.  Et soluta uxori suae eidem adjuvant! in opere praedicto iiid. Et Thomae Whynfell,  forman,  ibidem laboranti per istam septimanam xiid.     Et in cervisia empta et dictis laborariis data id.
Summa xvis. iid. Summa xvis. iid.
vi blomes            Septimana finiente die Sabbati xiiii to Septembris qua accidit Exaltatio Sanctae Crucis.     Et  in iiii  duodenarum  [et] viii semes combustione viis. iiiid.     Et  in  cariagio  eorumdem  xxiid.     Et  Johanni  Gylle,   blomer, facienti  vi blomes  iiis.     Et  uxori ejus eidem adjuvanti Hid.     Et Johanni del  Loge  fabricanti xii blomes viis.      Et  Thomae  Whenfell,  forman,  ibidem laboranti vs.    Et uxori ejusdem laboranti ad le stryngherth in fabricatione dictorum xii blomes xiid.     Et pro cervisia empta dictisque laborariis data id.
xxvs. vid. Summa xxvs. vid.
iiii blomes            Septimana finiente die Sabbati xxio Septembris qua accidit Festum Sancti Matthaei Apostoli.     Et in ii duodenarum et dimidiae carbonum combustione vs.     Et in cariagio eorumdem xvd.     Et Johanni Gylle, blomer,     facienti  iiii blomes  iis.     Et uxori praedicti  Johannis  eidem auxilianti in opere praedicto perficiendo iid.     Et  Thomae   Whenfell, forman,   ibidem laboranti per tres dies viiid.     Et  in  cervisia empta et dictis laborariis data id.
ixs. iid. Summa ixs. iid.
              Die Sabbati xxviiio Septembris. Et in iiii duodenarum [et] dimidiae carbonum combustione ixs.     Et in cariagio iiii duodenarum et dimidiae carbonum iis. iiid.     Et Johanni Gylle,  blomer,  pro factura viii blomes iiiis. viia Et uxori ejusdem pro labore suae [sic] eidem adjuvanti in dictis viii blomes faciendis iiiid.    Et  Johanni  Loge  fabricanti  viii blomes iiiis. viiid. Et Thomae Whynfell,  forman,  ibidem operanti iiis. iiiid.      Et uxori praedicti  Thomae  laboranti  ad le  stryngherthe  viiid.     Et in cervisia empta  et  dictis  laborariis  data  id.     Et soluta pro factura ii parium novarum bannasters 55 xxiid.
 xxvis. iid. Summa xxvis. iid.
             Die  Sabbati vto  Octobris  Festum  Sancti  Michaelis.     Et in iii duode- narum [et] vii semes carbonum combustione viis. iid. Et in cariagio praedictarum carbonum iis. iiiid.     Et in stipendio Johannis Gylle blomer facientis vi blomes iiis.     Et in stipendio uxoris ejusdem Johannis ibidem laborantis  in  factura   dictorum vi blomes iiid.     Et Johanni Loge fabri- canti viii blomes iiiis. viiid.     Et  Thomae  Wynfell,  forman,  ibidem laboranti iiis. iiiid.     Et uxore [sic] ejusdem laboranti super factura dictorum  viii  blomes viiid.     Et in cervisia empta et dictis laborariis data id.
 xxiiis. vid. Summa xxiiis. vid.
             Die Sabbati xii Octobris. Et soluta pro iii duodenarum et iii semes carbonum combustione vis. vid. Et pro cariagio eorumdem xixd. Et

55 I cannot find a satisfactory explanation for this 'word ; it occurs again under 26 Oct.

528 THE ACCOUNT ROLL OF A July

vi blomes  Johanni  Gylle , blomer,  facienti vi blomes iiis.     Et  Johanni  Loge  fabri- canti iii blomes xxid.     Et  Thomae Whynfell,  forman , ibidem laboranti xvd.         Et  uxori  suae  ibidem  laboranti  per  idem  tempus iiid. Et in cervisia empta et dictis laborariis data id.
xiiiis. viiid. Summa xiiiis. viiid.
              Die Sabbati xixo Octobris Festum Sancti Lucae Evangelistae.     Et in combustione v duodenarum [et] ii semes carbonum, ordinate pro opere praedicto xs. iiiid.      Et in cariagio eorumdem iis, viiid. Et Johanni Gylle, blomer, facienti vii blomes iiis. vid.     Et uxori ejusdem sibi auxilianti in opere  praedicto  iiid. ob.     Et  Johanni  Loge  fabricanti  ix blomes vs. iiid. Et  Thomae  de  Whenfell,  forman,  ibidem laboranti  iiis. ixd.      Et uxori suae  ibidem  laboranti  per  idem  tempus ixd.     Et in cervisia dictis laborariis data id.
xxvis. vid. ob. Summa xxvis. vid. ob.
             Die Sabbati xxvito Octobris. Et in combustione v duodenarum [et] dimidiae carbonum xis.      Et pro cariagio eorumdem iis. ixd.      Et Johanni Gylle, blomer, facienti vi blomes iiis.     Et uxori suae pro praedictis vi blomes  iiid.       Et  in cervisia  empta  et  dictis  laborariis data id.    Et in i pari banastres de novo facto pro petra inportanda xiid.
xviiis. id. Summa xviiis. id.
vi blomes            Septimana finiente die Sabbati secundo Novembris qua accidit Festum Omnium Sanctorum.     Et in combustione iii duodenarum [et] v semes carbonum vis. xd    . Et in cariagio eorumdem xxitZ. Et Johanni Gylle, blomer, facienti v blomes iis. vid.     Et uxori suae eidem adjuvanti in opere praedicto iid. ob.     Et in cervisia empta et dictis laborariis data id.
Summa xis. iiiid. ob. Summa xis. iiiid. ob.
vi blomes            Die Sabbati ixo Novembris.     Et in quatuor duodenarum [et] v semes carbonum  combustione  in parco praedicto pro opere praedicto viiis. xd. Et in cariagio eorumdem deinde usque dictum forgeum iis. iid.     Et in stipendio Johannis Gylle, blomer, facientis vi blomes iiis.     Et in stipendio uxoris praedicti Johannis, folles sufflantis, pro dictis vi blomes faciendis iiid.     Et  in  cervisia  empta  et  dictis  laborariis  data,   ista  septimana  id. Et in regardo facto Johanni Laybourne, colier,   per manus Johannis Falderle Junioris,   denarios solventis pro bono  et  diligenti  labori  suo, comburente carbones per totum tempus supradictum ex praecepto Radul-phi Euer senescalli,  vis. viiid.
xxis.  Summa xxis.
             Summa totalis expensarum iiii** iiil.  id.    Et debet iiiil. xvs. xd. quae onerantur in compote sequenti. Et aequatio est.
On the Back of the Roll.
LONGLEY
           Compotus Johannis Dalton custodis et appruatoris Domini Thomae Episcopo  [sic] Dunelmensis,  minerae ferri apud Byrkeknott,    de anno Regni Henrici quarti xo . . . . diebus.
Annis iii et iiii.

 1899 FIFTEENTH-CENTURY IRON MASTER 529

blomes ferri         Supradictus computator reddit de cclxxviii blemes [sic] ferri provenien- tibus  de  exitibus  minerae  puteorum  praed[ictorum] ,    et in forgeo prae- d[icto] forgeatis, factis, et fabricatis per tempus compoti, ut patet infra, quorum quodlibet blome [con]tinet xv petras et quaelibet petra continet xiii lb.
Respondeat
Thomae
Rose
          Summa cclxxviii blomes . . . continentes iiii m clxiiii petras ferri, unde lxi blomes nondum operantur in ferrum. 56
           De quibus idem computat liberata Johanni Smythe de Westaukelande pro  factura diversorum instrumentorum ferreorum pro mineris ferri suprad[ictis]  factis,  ut  infra,  xxii  petras ferri.      Et liberavit Radulpho Eure [mili]ti in recompensatione tot petras ferri ab ipso mutuatas pro instruments ferreis . . . faciendis, tarn pro minerae petrae ferri quarrura quam pro instruments ferreis [in] forgeo praedicto servientibus, xvi petras viii lb ferri.     Et liberavit domino Thomae Rose, supervisori operum dictorum xii lodas continentes ccm xl petras ferri.
   
             Summa ccm lxxviii57 petrae viii lb et remanent mmvccciiiixxv petrae v lb  unde  lxi  blomes [non]dum operantur in ferrum.     Et omnibus oneratis in compoto sequenti.     Et aequatio est.

56    This must mean, 'are not worked up into iron.' the metal of commerce ready for use being understood.
57    These and the following figures are corrupt.

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